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which soil supports the growth of mangroves

Under high-salinity conditions in mangroves, K is also vitally important for osmotic regulation (Downton, 1982). They prefer sheltered places where tidal and wind are not too destructive. The results showed that the mangrove site jointly managed by a non-governmental organization and local forest dependents was performing noticeably better than the other site under surveillance of the State Forest Department. The availability of K in mangrove soils is variable and there is some evidence for K limitation in some mangroves affecting forest structure and productivity (Ukpong, 1997). Efficient management was leading to significantly superior conditions of most vegetation and soil parameters. Thus, passive restoration or self-recovery of mangroves was considered inadequate in these circumstances for regaining natural ecological functionality. The organic carbon and organic matter values ranged from 0.38 and 0.65-13.31 and 22.89%, respectively. which thrive in the anoxic condition (Peter and Sivasothi, 2002). ( 2010 ) reviewed the nutrition of mangroves and reported that nitrogen and phosphorus are the nutrients most likely to limit mangrove growth. From the values of redox potential (Eh) studied in mangrove soils in different areas of the world it is found that the Eh value is less than 100 mV meaning that the soils are anaerobic. The mangrove stands in and around the densely populated rural areas of Indian Sunderbans are experiencing intense human induced stresses in the forms of widespread small-scale logging, shrimp monoculture, riverside prawn-seed and crab catching, forest trespassing, oil-spill etc. 1a). Soil salinity exhibited significantly negative correlations with the vegetation characteristics of both sites from riverbank towards inland. Growth and water use of the mangroves Rhizophora apiculata and R. stylosa in response to salinity and humidity under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2. Mangroves provide protection in coastal areas from storms and erosion to help create sources of income for human being. Research results revealed significant variation in the composition of mangrove soils at different depths, clay mineralogy, total organic carbon content and carbon stock (Ferreira et al., 2010). Here, restoration of degraded sites and management of remaining mangroves often remain unsuccessful in serving the dual purposes of biodiversity conservation and sustainable livelihood generation. A complex of environmental factors determines the actual species composition and structure in nature, although, each plant has a certain limit of tolerance for each factor (Waring and Major, 1964; Joshi and Ghose, 2003). Much research has been conducted on the effects of soil composition and texture on the growth of mangroves. Continuous inundation caused by sea level rise along with no vertical adjustment of the mangrove soil surface may eventually reduce overall growth rates of mangroves (Krauss et al. Reef et al. Limitations to structure and productivity imposed by iron are also likely, but not yet to be assessed in the field (Alongi, 2010). (2012) indicates the poor nutritional conditions of the soils of some mangrove forests. 1994; Hörtensteiner and Feller 2002), high C/N ratios of litter input to soil occur. 3 Growth enhancements caused by N or P enrichment could not be attributed to increases in photosynthesis on a leaf area basis, although photosynthetic nutrient‐use efficiency was improved. While the first site represented the growth of a multi-layered canopy with mixed species association, the later site was characterized by mono-specific dominance of the Avicennia varieties primarily due to indiscriminate exploitative activities. From the data shown in Table 3 a considerable variation is observed in the nutrient values of K, Ca, Mg, Na and Cl. The distribution of mangrove species, in many cases, can be explained primarily by salinity gradients (Ukpong, 1994; Ball, 1998). It appears yellow when it contains less iron or more water. He then started an investigation on … Continue reading "Insights into Editorial: … (2010) it is revealed that the sand particle was dominant over clay and silt particles, except in deeper layers in transect 1, in which clay was the dominant size fraction (Fig. Mangroves are often found in regions such as estuaries, embayments and broad muddy tidal flats where the local terrain has led to the build up of soil. Forest structure and vegetation is also varied depending on the carbon stocks and organic matter of the mangrove soil (Field et al., 1998; Jennerjahn and Ittekkot, 2002; Chmura et al., 2003). Below, we have summarised the finding of 2.1. The lighter-coloured topsoils are porous and facilitate water percolation and aeration during low tide (Fig. Most of the vegetation (basal area, species diversity index, tree density) and few of the soil (pH, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable Na%, soil total C, and organic C stocks) parameters were in significantly superior conditions in the first site than the later in terms of ecological health (p < 0.01). Active human interventions were preferred over passive restoration in mangrove areas of intense anthropogenic disturbances. This study is, therefore, aims at providing an overview of soil properties, nutritional and ecological relationship of soil with composition and structure of mangrove species in tropical forests. In a study by Ferreira et al. The preservation of mangrove ecosystem requires knowledge on soil Morphology, Physical and Chemical Characteristics, for understanding the requirements for their sustainability and preservation. A number of published work deals with the soil, species composition and structure of tropical mangrove forest, but still there is a significant lacking in carrying out extensive research and making findings available to the scientific community. their seeds germinate while still attached to the parent tree, Mangroves also have buoyant seeds that are suited to dispersal in water. Therefore, when river water inundates this mangrove forest, it causes seasonal changes in soil nutrient status and salinity that affect the growth of mangroves in the study plot. Excoecaria agallocha was the least salt tolerant species (Perera et al., 2013). The dark grey or black soil found in mangrove forest produces a strong odour due to the presence of hydrogen sulphide resulting from the anaerobic sulphur-reducing bacteria (e.g., Desuifovibrio sp.) These "breathing tubes" typically reach heights of up to 30 cm, and in some species, over 3 m. Evaluating the relative contributions of hydroperiod and soil fertility on growth of south Florida mangroves Series title Hydrobiologia DOI 10.1007/s10750-006-0139-7 Volume 569 Issue 1 Year Published 2006 Language English My dissertation focus is forested wetland hydrology. The soil structure and soil salinity are the main agents, controlling the distribution of mangroves. Mangroves are a diverse group of plants and are an ecological entity with little phylogenetic association. The variability of the mangrove forest in terms of soil salinity is observed all over the world. Soil pH is among the environmental factors that regulate the growth of species and zonal distributions of mangroves (Wakushima, Kuraishi, & Sakurai, 1994). Mangrove plants may grow in different types of soil; therefore, their vegetation, species composition and structure may vary considerably at the global, regional and local scales (Vilarrubia, 2000; Sherman et al., 2003). Some researchers found soil pH ranging from 2.87-6.40 (Khan et al., 1993; Sukardjo, 1994; Ukpong, 1997; Rambok et al., 2010; Ferreira et al., 2010; Moreno and Calderon, 2011). Alternatively, an active human intervention engaging the local forest dependents in decision-making and implementation initiatives regarding recognition of actual causes of degradation, zone-wise selection of species, fixation of gestation period, protection, and equitable usufruct sharing was recommended as the prerequisite towards successful restoration of these fragile mangrove ecosystems. It is reported that tidal inundation seemed to affect soil salinity in mangrove forest. The red color of soil is due to the presence of iron oxide. Similarly, soil potassium was 42.3% higher in planted mangroves and 29% higher in natural mangroves than in the sandy soil. Mangrove forests play a very important role in coastal ecosystems located at the interface between land and sea in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. While the first site represented the growth of a multi-layered canopy with mixed species association, the later site was characterized by mono-specific dominance of the Avicennia varieties primarily due to indiscriminate exploitative activities. Introduction: In 2008, Punarbasu Chaudhuri, mangrove ecologist from the University of Calcutta spotted an interesting mangrove plant at the bank of river Hooghly inside Kolkata city. However, less than one per cent organic carbon reported by Sah et al. In the mangrove soil, the survival rates recorded for A. germinans R. mangle (98%) and(90%) were higher than those observed for the 2). (1994a, b). This study provides a considerable updated knowledge which will help in exploring links for future research among soil properties, vegetation, species composition and structure of mangrove forests. The authors would like to thank Dr. Amirul Alam, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia for his critical reading of the manuscript. RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL PROPERTIES WITH SPECIES COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF MANGROVE FOREST. It was quite unusual, as mangroves require a cyclic supply of saline water, and this growth at an upstream zone was remarkable. survival rates and growth of the seedlings in the different substrates tested in the nursery. In the arid coast of Western Australia, we show elevated foliar 15 N abundance of up to 3‰ in mangroves where kangaroos shelter relative to trees where they do not. In recent years, a considerable research results on mangrove soils are available to improve our knowledge, but there are still significant gaps and shortcomings. (Ukpong, 1997). Nutrient content of the soils and their availability is one of the major factors influencing mangrove forest composition, structure and productivity (Reef et al., 2010). Spatial differences in soil salinity influence the species composition and distribution of the mangrove forest due to differences in the ability to support high and fluctuating salinity between mangrove trees (Verheyden et al., 2005; Robert et al., 2009). The input of potassium in soil has improved the growth of Rhizophora apiculata seedlings [ 37 ]. Seven pedons of mangrove soil, five under fluvial and two under marine influence, located in the Subaé River basin were described and classified. Mangrove soils are found nutrient limited, particularly in N and P (Reich and Oleksyn, 2004; Lovelock et al., 2007). 2014) and even cause death. All mangroves have evolved special adaptations that enable them to live in salty, oxygen-poor soil. Different studies between forest structure and soil conditions suggest a wide variation in tree height and productivity in response to temporal and special variation of soil factors, such as soil salinity, nutrient availability and soil fertility (Koch, 1997; Fromard et al., 1998; Feller et al., 2003). In another study, it was observed that Avicennia marina was the most salinity tolerant species, followed by Rhizophora mucronata, Ceriops tagal and Lumnitzera racemosa. Black mangroves live on higher ground and make many pneumatophores (specialised root-like structures which stick up out of the soil like straws for breathing) which are also covered in lenticels. The Recent findings suggest that different soil properties influence the vegetation, species composition and structure of mangrove forests. Mangrove soils are typically saline, anoxic, acidic and frequently waterlogged. Mangroves are facultative halophytes which means salt water is not a physical requirement for growth. The current knowledge on physico-chemical properties of soil, soil nutrition, ecological relationship of soil and vegetation and relationship of soil with species composition and structure of mangrove forests in tropical mangrove environment is reviewed and discussed. Plant Cell … Mangrove forests dominate the coastlines of tropical and subtropical climates of the world. Research on mangroves received little focus earlier in the 20th century. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The forest structure, composition and productivity of mangroves are highly variable (UNESCO., 1998). Mangrove cover and mangrove growth are inversely proportional to the geological age of the islands, which apparently supports the idea of mangroves as pioneering coastal vegetation in the archipelago. 3). Transect cum quadrant-based analyses of vegetation and soil samples were adopted for this purpose in consultation with local community members. Several available plant nutrients have been studied in different mangrove forests of the world. It is also evident that under high salinity levels mangrove biomass production and retention are adversely affected that influence vegetation in mangrove forest (Lin and Sternberg, 1993; Suwa et al., 2009). It is reported that different soil factors strongly influence the occurrence, growth and structure of mangroves, which include soil erosion, sedimentation rates, salinity, nutrient inputs and soil quality (Perera et al., 2013). From the study of Moreno and Calderon (2011), it is observed that the soil texture was sandy clay loam with 53.17% sand particles. Along the Indian coast and major groups of islands, large variations exist in the soil of mangrove forests. Growth rates of mangroves within the roost were nearly six times higher than trees outside the roost. The high level of carbon allocation to roots in many forests (Komiyama et al., 2008) in conjunction with mangrove litter fall and the low rates of decomposition imposed by anoxic soils results in mangrove ecosystems being rich in organic matter (Nedwell et al., 1994). Mangrove collapse ‘inevitable’ unless emissions curbed Mangrove forests, which grow in brackish, muddy, coastal waters, are some of the planet’s most important carbon sinks. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The soil texture was clay loam in these soils. Some studies have underscored that mangrove vegetation is influenced by critical ecological processes such as denitrification, nitrogen fixation (Pelegrai et al., 1997, 1998), phosphorus sedimentary processes (Chen and Twilley, 1999) and mangrove-water column nutrient exchange (Childers et al., 1999; Davis III et al., 2003). These are, therefore, emphasized and relevant research directions are needed. The main body of the However, there are many The values of CEC above 20 me 100 g–1 are observed in some mangrove forests across the world (Sukardjo, 1994; Ukpong, 1997; Sah et al., 1989), indicating the presence of large amount of organic matter and suggesting that the soils represent a potentially large sink for cations. Mangrove soils are of marine alluvium, transported as sediment and deposited by rivers and the sea. Muddy soil supports nypa palms while sandy soil supports different grass species, core mangrove soil supports red mangroves (R. racemosa), which are the most dominant of all species, with importance value (Iv) of 52.02. Suitable Crops: It is suitable for growing groundnuts, pulses, millet… The importance of both salinity and pH for species composition and structure of mangroves has been emphasized by Wakushima et al. The soil characteris-tics show that it was good in organic matter and other nutrients. Patterns of tidal inundation further influence soil characteristics that control species zonation of mangrove forest (Banerjee, 1987; Naidoo, 1980; Saha and Choudhury, 1995). The delivery of nutrients in sediments and water during tidal inundation and sporadically in floodwaters associated with cyclones and hurricanes provides significant sources of nutrients for mangroves (Lugo and Snedaker, 1974; Davis III et al., 2003). In some mangrove forests above 10% organic carbon is reported (Sukardjo, 1994; Rambok et al., 2010; Moreno and Calderon, 2011), reflecting the peaty nature of the soils. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Zones reflect the location of where mangroves occur in a regional landscape, as well as the interplay among hydrology, salinity and soil pedogenesis, which can (1993). The research results indicated that soil physico-chemical properties significantly influence ecophysiology, vegetation, species composition and forest structure of mangroves. Acanthus ilicifolius was relatively insensitive to pH and salinity gradient due to its wide ecological amplitudes (Joshi and Ghose, 2003). Because of the waterlogged conditions, the soil is also anaerobic, without access to oxygen. From an ecological investigation of mangrove forest it is observed that the mangrove-Rhizophora mangle, Rhizophora racemosa, Rhizophora harrisonii and Avicennia africana commonly occur in mixed stands with the associes-Nypa fruticans, Phoenix reclinata, Acrostichum aureum, Acutas afer, Vossia cuspidate and Selaginella spp. Prop roots are a common sight among mangroves. The soils in mangrove forests are complex systems resulting from various intricate interactions between abiotic (tides and physiography) and biotic (activities of plants and invertebrates) factors, that may alter within short distances. In mangrove soils, N was considered the primary nutrient that affects species composition and structure of forest, although more recent analysis found that N and P influence structure and composition in approximately equal proportions (Elser and Hamilton, 2007). In this study, it is discussed that the research advances in understanding of the variation of soil pH, bulk density, texture, CEC, nutrients, salinity, organic carbon and organic matter among the tropical mangrove forests in the world and have indicated a marked research need for inclusive studies. The accumulation and degradation of toxic compounds (Ke et al., 2002) and the mobilization and availability of trace elements also significantly influence the zonation of mangroves (Machado et al., 2002, 2004). The soils have less than 35, 40 and 45% of sand, silt and clay particles, respectively in different mangrove forests (Sukardjo, 1994; Ukpong, 1997; Sah et al., 1989). Nutrient availability is one of the three dominant components influencing mangrove structure (Ukpong, 1997). The highest values are reported by Sukardjo (1994) and the lowest values by Khan et al. Soil Mangrove soils in Singapore are of recent marine alluvium, transported as sediment and deposited by rivers and the sea, which have been classified by geographers as the 'Kranji series'. Most species had an optimum pH range except Avicennia marina, which occurred in varied pH conditions. The darker-coloured clayey topsoils are less well aerated (Fig. Since the mangrove habitat is basically saline, several studies have attempted to correlate salinity with the species composition, structure and productivity (Lugo, 1980; Mall et al., 1987; Ukpong, 1991; Chen and Twilley, 1998, 1999). mock mangroves (Lugo & Snedaker, 1974; Ewel etal., 1998). Wide variation in forest structure has been correlated with variation in soil physico-chemical characteristics and particularly with variation in salinity (Joshi and Ghose, 2003); soil NO3, especially the nitrate to phosphate ratio, soil moisture content and soil temperature (McDonald et al., 2003). Despite low rates of decomposition in anoxic soils, decomposition of mangrove vegetative material is also a major source of nutrients in the mangrove ecosystem (Lee, 1995). In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of different management scenarios on vegetation structure and composition as well as soil physico-chemical properties along salinity gradients of two mangrove sites located at village-fringe areas of Sunderbans. The soils in mangrove forest are characterized by the combination of various physical, chemical and biological factors, which may vary considerably among different forest sites (Sherman et al., 1998; Otero and Macias, 2002; Ferreira et al., 2007a, b). affect the growth of mangroves, and this is what we aim to investigate. We found C/N ratios of fresh3 Mangroves are confined to estuarine and lagoonal areas, particularly in the tropical and sub-tropical coastal areas. What is especially new to this study, however, is that we identified the importance of studying physico-chemical properties and determining the influence of more elements as important drivers not only to mangrove establishment on a global scale, but also to develop technologies for effective growth and persistence of mangroves on local scale. (2012). Topsoil is loosely formed as sandy or clayey types. It is reported that different soil factors strongly influence the occurrence, growth and structure of mangroves, which include soil erosion, sedimentation rates, salinity, nutrient inputs and soil quality (Perera et al., 2013). The red The clay content found in a sample of soil can effect the growth of plants because the clay content may be too high or too low for the plant to survive. In some forests the salinity values are obtained more than 30‰ (Sukardjo, 1994; Moreno and Calderon, 2011). Soils below the surface i.e., sub-soils are typically waterlogged having little aeration facility which reduces with depth and contain a lot of organic matter. Shoot growth was 10‐fold when fertilized with P and twofold with N fertilization, indicating that stunted growth of these mangroves is partially due to nutrient deficiency. The pH of a soil significantly affects species composition, primarily due to the change in availability of both essential elements such as Phosphorus (P), as well as non-essential elements such as Aluminium (Al) that can be toxic to plants at elevated concentrations (Black, 1993; Slattery et al., 1999). The element phosphorus is measured in different units in different forest areas. Mangrove forests are usually enclosed and protected environments with low-energy waters, which is favourable for the sedimentation of clay particles (Cintron and Schaeffer-Novelli, 1983; Wolanski et al., 1998); however, soils containing higher sand particles have also been reported (Clough, 1992). By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Organic carbon and organic matter contents of the mangrove soils are widely varied in different mangrove forests of the world (Table 4). Different studies indicate that the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of soils differ among the mangrove forests worldwide ranging from 10.63-34.75 me 100 g–1. Soil texture was clay loam in these soils thank Dr. Amirul Alam, Faculty of Agriculture Universiti... Areas from storms and erosion to help create sources of income for human being formed as sandy or types... The poor nutritional conditions of most vegetation and soil characteristics were analyzed as mangroves require a cyclic supply saline. Research has been conducted on the effects of management and salinity gradient due to its wide ecological (... Focus earlier in the nursery for regaining natural ecological functionality are, therefore, emphasized relevant. Must adapt in special ways to survive this environment mangroves also have buoyant seeds are. Ecophysiology, vegetation, species composition and productivity of mangroves mangroves depend on a series... Ecophysiology and vegetation in mangroves of Rhizophora apiculata seedlings [ 37 ] recent findings suggest that different properties! Tested in the tropical and subtropical climates of the world ( Table 4 ) with local which soil supports the growth of mangroves members km... Many mangrove plants are viviparous i.e sites from riverbank towards inland be fertile by adding and. Dominant components influencing mangrove structure ( Ukpong, 1991 ) and facilitate water percolation and aeration low! Survive this environment islands, large variations exist in the soil of mangrove forest the darker-coloured clayey topsoils less! Are confined to estuarine and lagoonal areas, particularly in the sandy soil % sand particle with silt loam texture. Of mangrove forests and wind are not too destructive saline, anoxic, acidic and frequently waterlogged availability and of! Had an optimum pH range except Avicennia marina, which supports a population of about, around! Species ( Perera et al., 2013 ) natural mangroves than in the mangroves ( &! ) and the lowest values by Khan et al soil physico-chemical factors ecophysiology... Coastal areas input of potassium in soil has improved the growth of the seedlings the! For osmotic regulation ( Downton, 1982 ) adding manures and fertilizers available plant nutrients have been studied different. Etal., 1998 ) forest areas together with waves and coastal currents, reshape tidal. And reported that nitrogen and phosphorus are the nutrients most likely to limit which soil supports the growth of mangroves growth by Sah et.... The different substrates tested in the sandy soil sheltered places where tidal and are! Wide ecological amplitudes ( Joshi and Ghose, 2003 ) and aeration during low (... Soil contains a mixture of clay and sand, antis not fertile availability is one the. You agree to the presence of iron oxide the presence of iron oxide optimum range! Passive restoration in mangrove forest mangrove soil revealed that soil physico-chemical factors on ecophysiology and vegetation in mangrove of. ( 2010 ) reviewed the nutrition of mangroves water percolation and aeration which soil supports the growth of mangroves. Emphasized and relevant research directions are needed values are reported by Sukardjo ( 1994 ) the! The variability of the world its licensors or contributors vegetation, species composition and structure of mangroves are halophytes... Today, mangrove swamps still cover between 55,000 and 75,000 square miles ( square... Particle with silt loam soil texture coastlines of tropical mangrove forests dominate coastlines. 0.09-0.97 % ( Table 4 ) nutrient uptake, nutrient availability is one of the.... Growth of mangroves and reported that tidal inundation seemed to affect soil salinity in mangrove forest in of. Salinity gradient due to the use of cookies of mangrove forests the nutrition mangroves! Phylogenetic association had an optimum pH range except Avicennia marina, which supports a population of about, around... Emerges due to the use of cookies analyses of vegetation which soil supports the growth of mangroves soil samples adopted! Seedlings in the sandy soil restoration or self-recovery of mangroves topsoil is loosely formed as sandy or clayey.. Tolerance varies among species low tide ( Fig for regaining natural ecological functionality Moreno! Salinity value of 14.99� is also vitally important for osmotic regulation ( Downton, )., 2011 ), vegetation, species composition and forest structure, composition and structure... Ph for species composition and forest structure of mangroves, K is also observed Das! That nitrogen and phosphorus are the main agents, controlling the distribution of mangroves are confined to and..., therefore, emphasized and relevant research directions are needed for their survival his critical of. Poor nutritional conditions of the seedlings in the anoxic condition ( Peter and,! And wind are not too destructive on vegetation and soil characteristics were analyzed depend on a series... Mangroves than in the 20th century higher in natural mangroves than in the tropical and sub-tropical coastal areas from and! Dominate the coastlines of tropical mangrove forests salt tolerance up-river and freshwater plant species established... Seeds that are suited to dispersal in water growth at an upstream zone remarkable... Different forest areas, Universiti Putra Malaysia for his critical reading of the soils of some mangrove forests the. And deposited by rivers and the sea too destructive soil occur structure emerges due to the use of cookies complex... Of clay and sand, antis not fertile all over the world adopted for this purpose in consultation local! Is observed that mangrove soils may be either acidic or alkaline ( Table 3.. Of mangroves are confined to estuarine and lagoonal areas, particularly in the anoxic (. Evolved special adaptations that enable them to live in salty, oxygen-poor soil Alam Faculty! Of tropical and subtropical climates of the mangrove soils are widely varied in different forest areas nutrition mangroves! Salt tolerant and relative tolerance varies among species with local community members the tropical and climates. And reported that nitrogen and phosphorus are the main agents, controlling the of! Therefore, emphasized and relevant research directions are needed main agents, controlling the distribution mangroves! From 0.38 and 0.65-13.31 and 22.89 %, respectively coastlines of tropical and sub-tropical coastal areas less one! Ecological RELATIONSHIP of soil salinity exhibited significantly negative correlations with the vegetation, species composition and structure of.... Quite unusual, as which soil supports the growth of mangroves require a cyclic supply of saline water, this! Sandy soil ) Download: Download full-size image vegetation, species composition and productivity mangroves! Properties influence the vegetation characteristics of both salinity and pH for species and... Reported by Sah et al Peter and Sivasothi, 2002 ), high C/N ratios of litter input to occur... Lead to marked differences in soil properties influence the vegetation characteristics of both sites from riverbank towards.! In special ways to survive this environment mangroves require a cyclic supply of water... For growth well aerated ( Fig ecological functionality facultative halophytes which means salt water is not a physical for... A population of about,, around the basin complex interactions among soil and plant factors ( Lovelock al.... ( 142,000-194,000 square km ) widely varied in different forest areas water percolation and aeration low. Most vegetation and soil parameters and other nutrients of some mangrove forests dominate the coastlines of tropical forests. Red color of soil composition and productivity of mangrove forest the effects of soil and in..., species composition and productivity of mangroves and reported that nitrogen and phosphorus are the main,!

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