empty fruits 23%, one seeded 52% and, and Raizada, 1961). September is the height of the wet season and the whole plantation is growing at an incredible rate with everything looking verdant. A series of studies on controlled pollination of, compared to that of the cross controlled pollination w. is up to 60% (Bryndum and Hedegart, 1969; Hedegart, 1973). After removing the leaves, the cuttings were, treated with auxins (1000 to 2000 ppm in liquid form) at, ment the top end of the cuttings was sealed with paraffin, wax to avoid any water loss and plant it in mist cham, 90% relative humidity and temperature around 30° to 32. for rooting. Clonal trials have been established with coppice shoot, cation). Sans avoir la même ampleur que durant cette crise, la question des réfugiés demeure aujourd’hui encore d’une brûlante actualité dans la région, en lien notamment avec les camps à la frontière entre la Thaïlande et le Myanmar, les dizaines de milliers de réfugiés urbains en Malaisie, ou les nouveaux boat people, qu’il s’agisse de ceux qui viennent du Myanmar et du Bangladesh ou de ceux qui tentent de rejoindre l’Australie. Introduction to the Teak Wood Farming Project Report. budding and grafting technique for teak which has been, used for establishing clonal seed orchards in India, Thailand, and Indonesia. and Sharma, J. K. Chavan, K. N., Kenjale, R. Y. and Chavan, A. S. 1995. The plantations reached their peak in 1865 when Indian teak gained popularity across the world for their water resilience. 0000004713 00000 n 0000004842 00000 n However, ineffective control method and strategy of IAS plants lead to persistence of these species in this area. Yield and stand tabl, Nagarajan, B. Clonal propagation technology for mature teak trees (63 year-old) has been achieved for the first time. Generally teak plantations are raised in natural condi-, the irrigation reduce the rotation period and enhance, productivity, however the quality of the timber is yet to, be studied. 0000010000 00000 n For both markers, cluster and structure analyses revealed two major clusters: one with nor-thern populations and another one with southern populations of Myanmar and those of Benin. The fo, ing substances including auxin (Palanisamy, resulting rooting in branch cuttings. These trees showed fast growth may be due to, the availability of the leaves and continuous supply of, but profuse flowering occurs after 15 years. you can expect 10 to 15 cubic feet wood from one teak tree. Teak cultivation has been the subject of research programs in India, Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar since 1960, and best-practice techniques for producing high-quality plantation teak are well documented. In: Proceedings of 8th Silvicultural Conference, Dehra D, Laurie, M. V. and Ram, B. S. 1940. The SSR markers showed a clear differentiation of the populations introduced in Côte d'Ivoire with an Fst = 0.21. jected to two thinning at the age of 10 and 15 years. Open, pollinated seed from the 350 superior trees from main, population along with the 50 trees from natural popula-, tions or plantation source will be used for raising second, The Core population will be used mainly for the esta-, Kaosa-ard (1996) has proposed similar breeding programme. 0000005965 00000 n It is proposed, population (400 open pollinated families) as progeny trial, done 10 years after planting and retaining only the best, trees. So why wait, let us dive into detailed farming of teak wood.. Teak wood known as the king of timber belongs to the family Verbenaceae. In In, plus tree of teak have been selected from both natural. Parthiban, Dean, Forest College & Research Institute (TNAU), Mettupalayam released the training manual and presented the Keynote address with the emphasis on the cultivation of timber species including teak and approaches for increasing the marketability. leaves and damaged fruits and then dried in the sun for, 2-3 days. Seeds, are sown in the top layer (sand and peat) and water twi, a day. Under favourable conditions the tree attains a large size with a tall, clean and cylindrical bole. suitable methodology has not been developed. �p�w�y�,��2&�F�6}|�(��C�z�Փa;�50*p�`����0�A���㪆9�%_�L��x���[U��`R�ʓ~���|� %�L* by teak plantation (81 ha), acacia plantation (830.60 ha) and mixed plantation (478.7 ha). Ayurvedic system of medicine is one of the oldest systems in India. Generally teak tree sheds its leaves in the month of, / April. 0000005320 00000 n Adult trees and young regeneration were sampled in selectively logged and unlogged populations in four regions, each in the northern and southern parts of Myanmar, and two plantations in Benin. Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) detected the highest genetic variation within populations. (Eds.) Teak is cultivated in many Asian, African and South American countries for timber production. heartwood which makes it highly valuable. Teak is perhaps best known for its long established use in the boat building industry. -P.J.Jarvis. Bios et Forest des, Nagarajan, B., Varghese, M., Nicodemus, A., Sasidharan, K. R., Bennet. When younger plantations are infested, by these pests can cause 44 percent loss of the potential, physiological and biochemical differences are found in, and resistance. The fruits are yellowish and. 0000002881 00000 n 4: 242-255. To achieve this, tree, stand, and wood properties were studied at age of 14 years. Indian Forester 117:249-254. taions and its Implications for Breeding and, karanj and bamboos. In teak, rooting depends upon the physiological status of the cutting, and season is no longer a major barrier in rhizogenesis. However, site quality seems to be the priority factor directing the size of spacing in the teak planting programme. Teak farming requires proper research (in terms of soil test, environment and climate) and good maintenance for 10–12 years. resources. La protection des réfugiés en Asie du sud-est: du privilège aux droits. Coppice shoot cuttings (1.0 to 1.5 cm in, diameter and 15 to 20 cm in length) were collected, selected trees and planted in polythene bags containing, emerged from the planted coppice shoots within a week, and these sprouts (4 to 6 cm length and 0.2 to 0.3 cm, composted coir fibre as rooting media and kept in poly-. However, some of the known fruits keep intact their specific characteristics of the variety independently from the way, which was used for propagation. Manual no. There ar, 3 main categories of the base populations. Rated 5.00 out of 5 ₹ 1,490. Pro-, have been observed in teak. For example, out of 235 clones assembled, should have plus trees from the same provenance or ecotype, with as many trees as possible to avoid non-overlapping, production in CSOs most of the plantations in India are, seeds are collected from 300 to 400 plus trees from diffe. The productivity of short rotation teak is high, (1995) compared the wood density of young and mature, teak trees of same location and stated that only a 5%, to 8 year old trees. eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Teak, (genus Tectona grandis), large deciduous tree of the family Verbenaceae, or its wood, one of the most valuable timbers. Recently, resistant clones for breeding and plantation program, Genetically improved planting stock is an, requisite for substantial increase in productivity. As a member of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Indonesia has confirmed to prevent, control and eradicate invasive alien species (IAS) in order to maintain biodiversity. Variation in growth, stem quality, among the provenances. 001) in Nago, Lampang Province, Thailand. Vegetative pro-, desired genotypes for establishing clonal plantations, seed, orchards and breeding populations to improve producti-, vity, preservation of genotypes and in induction of early, flowering for accelerated breeding programme. Subbiah Madurai 10,904 views. Present investigation explores the possible reusability of synthetically contaminated wastewater containing crystal violet (CV) organic dye using Tectona grandis sawdust (TGSD) waste as a very low-cost adsorbent. teak (IPO 38) in Pha Nok Khao, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. The reproductive success in teak is given in, of 99%. Whereas least was found in the Bidar population (2.33 mm). northern slopes of the Satpuras with reference to geology. 30,000 from one tree in 7 - 9 yrs. A, recent study on genetic variation within and among ten, population and the rest between populations (Nicodemus, and Central Indian regions may be designated as separate, breeding zones since these populations are gen, verting the best natural stand or plantation by removing, to produce quality seeds for raising plantations. Notes are provided on provenances, growth and yield, site classification, volume production and thinning practice. Teak prices increased 8.5 percent per annum between 1997 and 2007 (ITTO, cited in Bianchi et al. The estimated market share of teak logs in total tropical round wood production is less than 2% but in terms of value it is much larger, since teak is part of the high-value hardwood market, and is a major component of the forest economies of many tropical countries. Teak is a small proportion of world timber production and trade. The two visits were timed purposefully to see the site in the best and worst conditions. 1939. An additional 5% can be gained from, seed exclusively from the best clones in the CSO, stock from unclassified seed sources (Kaosa-ard, Kjaer and Foster (1996) calculated the econom, of using improved planting stock. xref Some important insects, pests of Madhya Pradesh and their control. 0000005143 00000 n This species was introduced to Indonesia more than 100 years ago, and large plantations—covering 1.2 million ha—can be found on Java Island. Dagar, J. C., Mongia, A. D. and Singh, N. T. 1995. Layer Poultry Farm Project Report for Bank Loan: Download PDF. It shows little tendency to crack and, Air Seasoning: Teak is a model wood for air, It does not offer any difficulty in air seasoning as it, (*At 12% moisture content; 1 Mpa = 1 N/mm, the rotation period may be reduced by suitable silvicultural, practices. A Mantel test showed significant positive correlation between genetic and geogra-phical distances among populations. Vermicompost Project Report: Download PDF. Teak seeds are seeds used in the Farming skill. Peechi. Snuffed for its aesthetic physical properties and its qualities, teak is becoming increasingly important in the forest plantation development in Côte d'Ivoire. Considering declining supplies from natural teak forests, the long-term prospects for plantation-grown teak appear promising and demand is likely to increase (FAO 2010, cited in Bianchi et al. Paper presented at the Second Regional Seminar on Teak, organized by Ministry of Forestry, Myanmar and FAO, 29 May-3 June 1995, Yangon, Myanmar. Plus, trees of teak are generally selected based on check tree, and time-consuming, but indispensable for improvement, in height and diameter when compared with. The majority of community‐grown teak plantation is located in Java. This study examined the effects of planting spacing on growth, yield, and wood properties of teak planted at square spacing regimes of 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m at Longuza Forest Plantation, Tanzania. Teak showed poor, growth and form on dry sandy soil, shallow or hard pan, soil, acidic, laterite, black cotton and water, and from sea level to an altitude of about 1,200 m. It, dry area in which the annual rainfall is less than 900 m, to the very moist areas with the annual rainfall of over, 3,500 mm (west coast of India). Teak is durable even when not treated with oil or varnish. The availability of DNA barcodes for increasing numbers of timber species allows rapid and accurate species identification. Unasylva. In Kerala, teak logs while China and Thailand are the larg, porters. Grape Cultivation in India: Complete Guidance. Out-break of both are common in teak plantatio, during the early part of the growth season and. It is important not to sow the seeds too deep, as, this will hinder germination. 0000005014 00000 n tance in all the teak growing states. The flowers are protandrous and entemo, and the flowering period for each panicle is between, 4 weeks with the opening rate of 30 to 300 flower buds. In Proceedings: 50th Year of Hu, Kaosa-ard, A., Suangtho, V. and Kjaer, E. D. 1998. Come and invest Rs.79 for one plants and earn more then. (2005) have developed a technique for mass multi-, ., 2000). a day (Bryndum and Hedegart, 1969; Hedegart, 1973). Teak tree sheds its leaves from N, to January (India) and remain leafless for long time (3 to, 4 months). 0000004202 00000 n Generally, seed p, duction is in the order of 20-30 kg/ha/year in plantations, and seed production areas with low management, whereas, production may be as high as 200-300 kg/ha/year. Under favourable season and. given in Table 5 and 6. HANSEN 1, H. SODARAK 2 and S. SAVATHVONG 3 Key words: Shifting cultivation, Taungya, improved fallows, teak (Tectona grandis), Laos, Abstract. Le présent ouvrage propose au lecteur une introduction et une analyse des principaux problèmes juridiques concernant la protection des réfugiés en Asie du sud-est. The FST values were significantly different among all teak populations and higher between than within the regions in Myanmar. Teak wood is used in ship and boat constructions, furnitures and aesthetic needs. Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the most valuable timber yielding species in the world, with predominant distribution in tropical or sub-tropical countries. Core populations will be formed at this, selecting 50 best families. Nursery experiment was carried out during April 2004 to June 2005 at Agriculture Research Station (Paddy), College of Forestry Campus, Sirsi. The development of DNA marker method to identify and control the origin of tree and tree products from tropical tree species would greatly contribute to distinguish legally from illegally harvested wood. Our study improves the understanding of differential metabolites between sapwood and heartwood of teak, and provides a reference for the study of heartwood formation. The flowering season in, is February to September (Egenti, 1981). For the preparation of stumps, one, lateral roots, a portion of shoot and tap root, and stumps, of size 20-25 cm (approximately 4 to 6 cm shoot and 15, showed better growth may be due to stored energy. In India about 300 species of insects have so far been, India. This paper reports the use of site-specific recombinase (SSR) technology using microsatellite DNA markers to investigate the level of genetic variability, distribution of genetic variation and genetic relatedness in Tectona grandis grown in Côte d'Ivoire. Bor, N. J. The sapwood is white to pale yellow in colour and clearly demarcated while heartwood is dark brown or dark golden yellow in colour. The failure in seedling and/or stand establish-, Teak is a deciduous tree with an average height and, base and pale brown and grey in colour. DIVERSITY OF ANTS (FORMICIDAE) IN MARATHWADA REGION MAHARASHTRA, INDIA. 0000004455 00000 n The other pests include the tree borer, and ecology of the important insect pests have been dealt, by many researchers (Mathur and Singh 1960; Bro, it is difficult to control them in the plantations. Commercial illegal trade is the largest threat to important timbers in India and industrialized countries. Timber cut from old teak trees was once believed to be more durable and harder than plantation grown teak. In addition, we detected 16 specifically expressed secondary metabolites in the heartwood, the presence of which may correlate with the durability and color of teak heartwood. In general, genetic diversity within teak populations was relatively high but not significantly different between management types and between regeneration and adults. However, when the trees grow in, moist conditions or canal beds they remain with full, month). L'Asie du sud-est a pourtant connu l’une des plus grandes tragédies de l’histoire contemporaine avec la crise des réfugiés indochinois entre 1975 et 1997, qui a conduit au déplacement de plus 3 millions de personnes originaires du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam. the species in the northern latitudes such as in India, whereas in the Southern latitudes such as, Papua New Guinea it is between December and March. Before preparing the pits for planting seedlings, land needs to be ploughed property for better soil aeration. Teak is a high-quality hardwood timber species mostly found in tropical regions. Kerala Forest Research Institute, and stem quality. 0000004160 00000 n According to Altona (1922) teak, in some parts of Java has a regular planting distances to, indicate that teak forests in Indonesia has developed as a. result of plantations raised during the Hindoo era (i.e. 0000003799 00000 n However, little information currently exists about the genetic diversity and origin of these trees. (Eds.). Valued for more than 2,000 years as an extraordinarily durable construction timber in its native range in Asia, teak is now coveted worldwide. • Ambiguous effect of clayey and other restrictions on teak productivity. Studies on the seasonal incidence of defoliators and, the effect of defoliation on volume increment of tea, Nautiyal, S., Uma Singh and Gurumurthi, K.1991. colour and the number varies from 1150 to 2800 per kg. for production quality and quantity. For seed length and seed breadth highest was found in the Ponnampet population 5.57 mm and 3.96 mm respectively and least was observed in the Bidar population 5.31 mm and 3.63 mm respectively. f., in Nigeria: Pollinators and fruit p, oducts of Teak from Sustainable Forest Manage-. Kumasi, June 23, GNA - Dr. Owusu Afriyie Akoto, Member of Parliament (MP) for Kwadaso in Kumasi, on Monday launched a Teak Seedlings Planting Project for basic schools in his constituency to replenish the vegetative cover removed by human activities. of teak cultivation in farmlands. This has provided us with a chance to look into the pest complex associated with such plantations. Soil samples were collected at 0-30 cm depth by a non-disturbed method from 14 locations. 0000006137 00000 n Pruning is not, and pruning of side branches is necessary in young plan-. The kinetic results were examined in the light of different models and pseudo-second-order was obtained to be best obeyed. cant advances in the intensive silvicultural management of teak focused on the production of high-quality timber. Plant improvement programme was… Read More; Soil Chemistry. However, Bambuku 7 population was an exception, as it seemed to have some affinity with Thailand populations. In: P, Forestry Conference, SFRI, Jabalpur, Madhy P, Kjaer, E. D. 2005, Genetic Aspects of Quality Teakwood P, In: Quality timber Products of Teak from Sustainable Forest Mana-, Kjaer, E. D. and Foster, G. S. 1996. 0000005793 00000 n 1991). Get ready the pits measuring 45cm x 45cm x 45cm and keeping a space of 2m x 2m, 3m x 3m, or 4m x 4m prior to rainy season, given that seedlings should be planted during the rainy season. The breeding population in the programme comprise, with main population of 400 open pollinated families, each of 10 tree plot and core populations com, 50 elite families from the main population. Choice of quality planting stock of teak the question of a "genetic business plan" Kjær, Erik Dahl; Graudal, Lars Ole Visti; Ditlevsen, Bjerne; Hansen, Jon Kehlet Published in: I Pangandaran Nature Reserve (PNR) is one of conservation areas that have been invaded by IAS plants. 1957. The name, pines. Pricing/Availability: Despite its widespread cultivation on plantations worldwide, Teak is very expensive. source and plantations in different parts of the country, and some of them have been assembled in the germplasm, bank, and fresh selections are being carried out. Applying the G″st differentiation parameter, the estimated overall differentiation was 0.632, implying a strong genetic structure among populations. The proportion of the total genetic variation resides within provenances (80.52 %) with 5.5 % of the variation occurring among populations of one region and 13.98 % among regions. The fruits fall over a. but mostly filled with 1 or 2 seeds only. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) (family Verbenaceae) is one of the exotic, hardwood timber trees. 0000006094 00000 n overview • prices (problems) • supply & demand • current prices • standard international pricing mechanism • conclusions. cv3�. The huge teak trees from, structural needs like ship and boat building, construction, and bridge building. The conservative drug available in the marketplace treat inflammation and analgesia produces various side effects. enhance initial height growth with straight and clean bole. The plant, a species of evergeen (Camellia sinensis), is valued for its young leaves and leaf buds, from which the tea beverage is produced. Both Shivamogga and Ponnampet recorded low germination (6.3%). Teak is a tropical hardwood used in high-end products such as yacht decks and luxury flooring. Teak plantation can store substantial amount of carbon. Bois et Forêts des Tropics 226: FAO. The sapwood is, white to pale yellow in colour and clearly dem, while heartwood is dark brown or dark golden yellow in, colour. table for teak production. Wood density is, The diversity of teak populations studied using mole-, Prat,1995; Kjaer and Suangtho, 1995; Nicodemus, portion of diversity present within the populations. The programme includes provenance identification and testing, plus tree selection and clonal multiplication, establishment of seed orchards and controlled hybridization. Teak Wood Farming Project Report, Cost and Profits of Teak (Sagwan) Cultivation. 0000005406 00000 n A Bayesian cluster analysis using the STRUCTURE software gave very similar results, with three main clusters, each containing two sub-clusters, while Bayesian cluster analysis in the Geneland software, exploiting the spatial coordinates of the provenances, resulted in five clusters in accordance with the former results. It is a deciduous, large tree growing long reaching 30 to 40m in height. The petals, that flowering day. Analyses using 459 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci revealed that native provenances had higher genetic diversity than the Indonesian teak plantations. Thus this adsorbent can be effectively utilized to make the impure wastewater reusable. Of the 28 132 ha that the company holds, KVTC identified 14 000 ha in the Kilombero and Ulanga districts as par-ticularly suitable for producing high yields of superior quality teak wood on a sustainable basis while applying current international forestry, environ-mental and social standards of prac- tice. Cultivation. The plant, a species of evergeen (Camellia sinensis), is valued for its young leaves and leaf buds, from which the tea beverage is produced. However, three main factors, ard, 1986). The specific gravity as well as strength prop. 0000005707 00000 n Coppice, shoots emerge at the base of the tree after felling and it, coppice shoots are suitable for operational planting pro-, superior teak trees in plantations or natu, felling of the selected tree, rooting of coppice shoots in, mist chamber or polytunnel and hardening of the pro-, tations felled at 20 to 30 cm (approximately) above the, ground level. It took nearly 150 years for India to catch up. Place the, seed in a hessian bag and dock the bag in water, pre-, seed out in the sun to dry for 12 hours. Teak has been introduced to Indonesia, Sri Lanka. Sowing is done directly in the field or in the nursery. 0000003070 00000 n By gna Listen to article. Batch adsorption studies were carried under changing conditions of contact time, the initial concentration of CV, pH, TGSD dose, TGSD particle size, and temperature. The low, fruit percentage under open or natural pollination is due, to several factors. Laos is not an exception. Teak grows well in deep, well-drained alluvial soils, fairly moist, warm, tropical climate with pH ranges from 6.5-7.5. About 5000 ha of SPAs of teak are established in, different teak growing states in India (Mandal, Selection of outstanding trees called plus trees from, natural populations and plantations is the first step in tree, clear bole without too much of taper, bumps, epicormic, with light branching (iv) a reasonable amount of seed, production and (v) less pest and disease incidence.
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